2023 Midland University Spring Research Fair
Students presented their projects at the annual Luther College of Arts & Sciences Research Fair. They have been working diligently throughout the semester on their various learning experiences. Students showcased the summary of these accomplishments through their presentations at the fair.
Congratulations to the 2023 Spring Research Fair winners!
1st – Matthew Welton
2nd – Lance Myers
Inquiry & Evidence-Based Research Award
1st – Henri Stoeckerman
2nd – Natalie Hammer & Rylee Rusink
Primary Data – Explanatory Research Award
1st – Jace Garza
2nd – Sarah Showalter
Research Fair Projects
APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS
My internship took place at Munroe-Meyer Institute in Early Intervention and Pediatric Feeding. Both departments worked with children using Applied Behavior Analysis to improve everyday skills.
During my time at Munroe-Meyer Institute, I worked with two different clinics. My first semester was spent at the Autism Care for Toddlers Clinic and my second semester was spent at the Severe Behavior Unit. Both experiences provided me with knowledge I will take with me as I continue my academic and professional career.
My internships at Munroe-Meyer Institute in the Early Intervention and Severe Behavior departments expanded my knowledge beyond the classroom. Through a variety of experiences with a diverse population, I have gained valuable experience in the world of Applied Behavior Analysis. Whether developing skills in children with autism, or reducing severe behaviors, there is a lot to learn at Munroe Meyer Institute.
Munroe- Meyer Institute (MMI) provides many services to people, ranging from occupational therapy to specialized services for children with autism or developmental disabilities. I had the privilege to be a part of MMI during my senior year internship, where I got some of the best clinical experience in the Severe Behavior and Early Intervention departments. In these departments, I expanded my knowledge of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) while also establishing professional work skills.
Working at the UNMC ACT Clinic, I got to do a lot of things in the field of Applied Behavior Analysis such as being a part of clinical research, receive hands-on experience with skill acquisition, and network and build relationships with professionals in the field.
In recent years, energy drinks have started to be labeled as “healthier” alternatives compared to other energy drinks, but still contain high amounts of caffeine. It is known that high amounts of caffeine negatively affects the heart by rapidly increasing heart rate and as a result, the experiment focused on the effect concentrations of five popular energy drinks had on heart rate and mortality rate of Daphnia magna. The results showed that higher amounts of caffeine lead to rapid heart rate and/or death whereas lower concentrations lead to an increase heart rate that was viable as well as an increase in body activity.
We researched the effects of fertilizers and pesticides on soil microbes. We used soil from different locations to test the resistance to additives to see if soil with different microbes reacts differently. We grew 200 Wisconsis Fast plants as part of our data collection, in order to have an indicator whether or not microbes have been affected.
With the increase of antibiotic use of the general public, there has been an increase of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. We studied the use of essential oils as an alternative antimicrobial/antibiotic method. The experiment suggests that there is differential effectiveness of essential oils as well as how essential oils affect the human micro flora.
Due to increased pollution in runoff water in urban areas, there has been an increase of plants and crops dying from contaminated water and impacting supplies to reach the growing demand for a growing population. We investigated the effects of uncontrolled chemical exposure at different concentrations to see at what level the plant cannot survive. Kentucky Bluegrass or Poa pratensis is a fast growing, winter grass that is commonly used in colder climates for lawns and could show how the chemicals impact a hardy plant and possibly impact others as well.
Martin Luther King Jr’s “I Have a Dream” speech is a very well-known speech given on August 28th, 1963. This speech was given to many civil rights activists of all ages and backgrounds, and will forever be remembered for the hope and change that was mentioned for equality among all people. Using cluster criticism to analyze this speech, I have researched further upon the terms and clusters of terms within this speech in order to analyze more in depth all of the prominent terms and clusters that make up the overall importance of this speech. It is through these terms and clusters that this speech proves to still be relevant today as many current interviews, readings and data provide similar topics of hope and change within them for people of minority groups. The results of this study show how prevalent Martin Luther King Jr’s words still are today, and how change is still a huge need among the world we currently live in.
The song “What a Wonderful World” by Louis Armstrong is an iconic piece of music that continues to inspire people worldwide. This essay explores the underlying message of the song and its broader implications.
The rationale behind this project is to investigate the meaning and relevance of “What a Wonderful World” in the contemporary era. The problem addressed is the increasing levels of negativity and despair that are prevalent in the world today, and how this song provides a counterbalance to these negative forces.
The methodology used to analyze the song involves a close reading of its lyrics and an examination of its cultural and historical context. The results of this analysis show that the song offers a hopeful and optimistic vision of the world, celebrating the beauty of nature and the diversity of human experience.
The larger implications of this study are significant, as they suggest that the message of “What a Wonderful World” is more relevant than ever in our current times. By promoting positivity, hope, and a sense of wonder, the song provides a much-needed antidote to the cynicism and despair that are all too common in our society.
Overall, this essay argues that “What a Wonderful World” is not just a beautiful song, but also a powerful and inspiring message that can help us to see the world in a more positive and hopeful light. By embracing the song’s message, we can work together to create a brighter and more beautiful world for ourselves and future.
One of the longest-running rivalries in sports history between the National Football League’s (NFL) Chicago Bears and Green Bay Packers is one that has built a mythology over the course of its century long existence. Despite the ebb and flow of success each team has experienced over their long histories, the rivalry has continually been sustained despite each team experiencing faltering stretches. This is in large part due to the rhetoric that is shared by not just the teams, but the fans as well. The atmosphere and aura that centers around the fanbases of these teams is unmatched. Observing the ideological nature of this rivalry’s energy, we begin to see key traits that makes this rivalry inherently different than other rivalries found across sports history and an integral part of the NFL mythology.
In my project I am going to be talking about the differences between comic books and social media and how they each have a different ways of communicating through pop culture. The problem is to solve why social media isn’t truly a better way to spread pop culture. Ways I can find out which one people prefer is by doing studies on people and asking questions on which one was more better and which one is more reliable to them.
The project I am doing is should colleges and universities have to pay their student athletes? A reader would be highly interested in this because it can show people who our non-athletes/athletes the difference and scholarship money each party gets and why an athlete should not be getting paid. The problem that it resolves is athletes shouldn’t be getting paid if they are already receiving a full ride scholarship and meals/room and board are already paid for. Some of the themes our non-athletes who don’t get enough money as an athlete is a problem in most peoples eyes. The reason why athletes get a full ride scholarship is because they compete against other schools mentally and physically day and out. Non-athletes who are there for schooling only need to worry about themselves and how they our doing in the class room mentally, not physically. It means that in society athletes have more responsibility than a non-athlete. But if your school is paid for, along with room and board/books, you shouldn’t need extra money in your pockets.
In the 21st century the sharing of music has become a more and more important part of our culture. WIth the advent of streaming, new genres of music are being heard by larger audiences every day and this generation of young adults reportedly listens to the most music by earlier generations than any previous generation. Ants From Up Here is an experimental album that pulls from different genres in a way that up until this point, had not been attempted. Using analysis of interviews, songs, and other media we can begin to understand the character and world created within the work. As a result of this study a prediction can be made about the shape of genres, specifically rock, to come and see new artists as they begin to rise. At a societal level, understanding the context of which the album came out in is pivotal in understanding social climate in the early 2020’s
The rationale of this project is to see the results of this test that theses adults are given. The task is to find there perfect match and in doing so they talk to people in the house. In the house they bring about eight to six people to get along, have conversations, and get to know each other and see if they are there perfect match. This is in a span of about six weeks. My reason for this is if this actually is something that works, can you actually find a perfect match in a short period of time or is it all just a experiment?
I’m talking about generic criticism because it shows the audience some of the central tropes are off the main tropes offer, and it makes it more interesting to see what they do and how we can see the difference from other shows. The show Community uses generic criticism as a primary point to tell stories. What are the tropes and generic criticism in its performance, and how does it use them for strengths and weaknesses? Also, asking the question, was the use of parodies and tropes help cause the show’s success? Some ways to figure it out will be using the Rhetorical Criticism textbook, essays, and video essays to shape the paper’s opinion. The paper’s findings will be used to see if there is any backing for the ideas of generic criticism and the success of this cult classic Television Show. With this knowledge, we will see what it is used for in modern popular culture and if there is any practical or theoretical reason for success in comedy television shows.
The narrative analysis done on Michael Jackson’s Thriller music video is important because of its impact on pop culture for decades. The video, the way it was put together, and the storyline have continuously held a tight grip on society and forever changed how music videos were made. While many people are familiar with the video, the problem this research is looking to solve is the breakdown of the story and the video itself, and why that story impacted the music industry and society so greatly. In order to do this, a narrative analysis will be performed to understand the experience communicated to the audience, the message of the video, and the personal convictions portrayed to viewers. All of the elements within the video, such as setting, characters, events, relationships, and more will all be put together to help the audience reach a conclusion. This research and analysis will give a personal answer to why Michael Jackson’s Thriller music video was one of the most famous, successful, and arguably best music videos of all time to the audience.
The reason for writing this paper is to give audiences a little bit more context as to what the overarching idea of this specific album is. The main thesis of this project would be to find which words or phrases are used the most throughout this album. By finding the most used words and phrases, we can begin to differentiate J. Cole from other artists as well as differentiate this specific album of his from his other albums and see how they might compare or contrast. To conduct my research, I will be using cluster criticism to find my results. By using cluster criticism, I am able to more easily place J. Coles lyrics into clustered groups and easily find my results. I would say the theme of the project is the album itself and the sub themes are the specific songs. This research for rap culture specifically can show how J. Coles music compares to other rap artists in the same field.
Abstract: The Bachelor Franchise has survived and curated a recipe for addiction in their repetitive and easily captivated television series following young, attractive singles on their journey to find love. Within an alternate reality, we’ve seen social implications of racial discrimination, discrepancies in socio-economics standings, the tedious exploitation of women and gender stereotypes as well as an overwhelming sense of filtered conversations and scripted drama. Today I will be analyzing the prevalent impacts Pop Culture has and continues to hold on reality TV’s ‘The Bachelor’ examining different aspects of our modern society including politics, the population, and the powers that control what we as audience members see.
The importance of this research is to critically analyze a famous pop culture TV series with the petard analysis technique. This helps their audience break down the show into a greater depth and provide more reasonings for why the show is the way it is. Readers may be interested in the larger work because they are either very big fans of The Office, or they are looking for how to analyze something using the Pentad Analysis technique.
The problem that is attempting to answer would be understanding how to analyze specific things in pop culture. Especially in the form of a Pentad analysis.
The method that will be used for this project is analyzing. This will be done through none other than the Pentad method. This method can be applied to most things in pop culture. Things that it can apply to would be movies, songs, tv series, podcasts, documentaries, ect.
Results of the study will show themes within the tv series, subthemes, and the analysis process. This will add to the body of knowledge on the topic by helping break down why the show was so successful and how it turned out the way it did.
This research serves to show the implications big corporation’s competitiveness can have on various aspects of society. Big businesses are cut throat in their practices and will do almost anything to beat out their competitors. The South Park episode takes the competitiveness and cut throat vibes to the extreme in order to highlight the lengths big corporations are willing to go to to dominate the market. This research project works to help highlight the control big corporations have over the market and people in the United States and the extreme lengths they will go to in order to maintain their control. I will be conducting a cluster critique over some of the scenes in the south park in order to have a better understanding of the author and what message he is trying to send. The theme of this project are big corporation control and free market competitiveness. This would mean the awakening of the public to the realities of big corporations’ influence on daily life. It implicates the businesses for their extreme strategies of competitiveness that oftentimes disregard public safety.
I will be conducting my research on The Hunger Games Trilogy (films) directed by Gary Ross based off of the novels written by Suzanne Collins. I have seen these films multiple times and have enough knowledge about them to create a narrative analysis about them. They are very popular films that are unique to any other movies released due to the fact that it is a drama/action movie set in a dystopian society. Within my analysis, I will discuss the story elements, such as the plot/story lines, narrative structure, main characters/side characters, along with what kind of society the characters live in (which is interesting because it takes place in North America). This work adds to the body of knowledge on the topic because it isn’t just a movie about a bunch of kids placed into a dome to kill each other. Instead, there is so much underlying information regarding the type of society they live in, the different classes and how they are treated, and more input into the characters, along with a love story as well.
The game of golf has been around for generations, always known as a gentleman’s game that’s slow paced and “boring”. Once the COVID-19 pandemic hit, golf was one of the only things that you could still do with people, and this made golf more appealing as wide ranges of ages started to play golf and watch golf, which has now allowed the game to become more popular than ever. Now is the time to breakdown the evolution of golf and being able to understand what has changed, whats made it more popular, and what the world of golf can do to continue to stay popular. Breaking down golf from a Cluster Criticism standpoint and break down visuals of golf for a more clear understanding. The themes of the work will be the era of golf and popularity, how the pros played and what made it appealing/not appealing. A theoretical application of the study is that when there became more younger players on the PGA tour who are exciting and not the typical “golf norm” and have made the game more exciting and friendly towards all ages.
The importance of my research for this topic is to shed light on the importance of this great achievement. That was obtained by Lebron James after being held for 38 years by Kareem Abdul-Jabaar. I feel like readers would be interested in reading in more depth about this great accomplishment that took so long to be passed by someone else. This work attempts to solve the debate of who’s the best basketball player to touch the hardwood. The scope of the project would simply be about Lebron and how he obtained the title and what it took for him to reach that accomplishment. My claim would be Lebron obtaining the scoring title definitely makes him the greatest basketball player of all time. The themes would be hard work and dedication a sub theme would be thriving as well. For culture and society this means that if you believe and do everything by the book you will reach your dreams and goals plus more.
In December of 2022, the film ‘Violent Night’ was released in theaters for the world to see. The title of the film references the popular Christmas song ‘Silent Night,’ but this movie is anything but calm and bright. ‘Violent Night’ is exactly what it implies, a violent Christmas movie. It features the actor David Harper playing Santa Claus. A Santa Claus hungry for blood. The depiction of a violent Santa has huge implications regarding our desensitization to violence and our gradual need for an increase in violence to be seen as shocking. Leading us to ask the question, “How does the film ‘Violent Night’ reflect our gradual desensitization to violence.” The answer lies in our ability to recognize the horrors of normalizing a violent Santa and how that affects our physical and emotional reactions to other types of violence.
The goal of this project is to examine whether a parent’s decision to attend college or not influenced the decision of current Midland students. This topic was explored by handing out surveys to students on campus to get a better understanding on why students decided to attend.
The purpose of this study is to see if social media has an effect on college students’ academics, and if social media has a negative impact on college students in general. Also this study explores whether students are suffering from lack of sleep and mental health problems because of social media, and whether these variables also play a role in impacting college students’ academic success.
The goal of this study is to research how personal stress plays a role in a student’s GPA. Is stress actually playing a large role in student academics, or is it not as big of a factor as we think? This question is answered through surveying Midland University Students to determine how stress impacts their academics.
The goal of this study is to understand the perspectives of police officers. Often times the only way that society gets an insight into what police officers do is from media sources, which aren’t always accurate. Through this study officers were able to talk about what they do on a daily basis from their point of view.
This research studies the relationship between society, religion, and science by examining how these things have an impact on perceptions surrounding scientific advancements and capabilities. Specifically, this study focuses on perceptions regarding in vitro fertilization, genetic editing in humans, and reviving extinct species. This data was conducted through in-depth interviews.
Through my research I was trying to gain a better understanding of religion in connection to the mental health of college-aged students. I conducted a study where I distributed and collected 100 surveys with questions that specifically examined whether religion affects Midland student’s mental health. These questions helped to gain insight on the idea that if you lack or excel in one aspect of your religious belief did it have an affect on mental health.
This project examines the role of parents being an impact on their child’s success based on if the parents went to college or not. This research also examines how parental opinions shaped the students’ desire to attend college and what degree they have chosen. Parental financial support is also examined in context with these different influences. These results are gathered through survey methodology.
The main purpose of this study was to examine men’s attitudes towards abortion, how men view abortion, what their opinion is on the situation, and if they feel their opinion is taken into consideration.
The purpose of this study is to get a general understanding of whether or not there is a correlation between social media and mental health issues on the Midland University campus. This study is important because social media has been very prominent in many lives for the past decade and there is a darker side of social media that often goes unnoticed that has affected many social media users mentally. This study aims to shine light on that unnoticed aspect in order to raise awareness and help those in need.
A concept created by W.E.B Du Bois, the Talented Tenth consisted of the top ten educated black male individuals whose goal was to inspire and provide leadership roles for the black community. Using Du Bois’s biography, archives, and other historical sources, we can see how the Talented Tenth could provide political, educational, and opportunities to uplift a race. The Talented Tenth could aid in redefining the country’s structure ensuring fundamental equal rights.
Many great American leaders are remembered, commemorated, and looked highly upon many years after they pass away, yet some great American leaders are just set above it all. One of these people is great American leader George Washington, one of the forefathers of the land we live and breathe on today. Without George Washington, who knows where we would be as a nation. He led us to many great places, and within this paper I will show you the impact the U.S. had due to us being led by George Washington.
The research I did was to find out why Roosevelt was a naturalist. While researching I found a theory that he became a naturalist due to the death of his mother, and wife, on the exact same day. I was able to capture and captivate the theory posed and answer truly answer why Teddy Roosevelt was a naturalist.
World War II transformed not only the United States, but the world forever. It is one of the most researched world events, yet many people don’t understand what it was really like to be there. American soldiers, both at home and overseas, faced many hardships and adversity during the war, and were ultimately altered forever. This project uses a variety of documents that help with understanding what it was really like to be an American in the Great War.
Dwight D. Eisenhower was one of the most important figures of the 20th century. He served as the 34th President of the United States, as well as being the Supreme Commander of all Allied forces in Europe. His legacy spans from his military leadership in the Allied victory in Europe to his domestic policies and accomplishments during his presidency. This research project explores the life and impact of Dwight D. Eisenhower, examining his leadership style, political ideology, and enduring contributions to American society.
The rise and fall of prohibition continues to have effects on the United States today. Several different perspectives were considered during the criminalization and subsequent decriminalization of alcohol. This essay explains how prohibition came to be and its demise, and how different people and groups related to prohibition effected its lifespan.
The goal of this research is to find how the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) has changed over time, who benefitted from the FHA, and who may have not been able to participate in FHA programs.
The United States has an abundance of state and national parks ranging from Acadia to Yosemite. However, many people don’t know how they came to be. The Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC) once employed thousands of young men that were responsible for the majority of these parks, and many other things related to the conservation of nature during the New Deal Era. This project uses a variety of documents to explain what exactly the Civilian Conservation Corp was, how the program came to be, and the lasting impact on America.
Amidst the Great Depression and his first term as President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt created the Works Progress Administration as a part of his New Deal. The WPA was a way of creating millions of jobs for Americans who had lost their jobs due to the country’s economic depression. During its short-lived life-span, the WPA focused primarily on public works initiatives but also created various art initiatives, sparking some backlash across the country. This project aims to analyze the immense success surrounding the various jobs and initiatives created and overseen by the Works Progress Administration, along with a look into why the Administration did not last long.
The Works Progress Administration is the program that I chose as they built so much all across America. I want to look at what they built in each area of the country and chose a couple from each area and talk about them. I want to examine who the WPA worked with in terms of other programs and talk about how they worked together or if there were any issues as the country was still recovering. Also want to discuss individuals who supported the WPA and why they did, but also who was against the WPA an why they were as well.
Social security has been an enduring part of the American experience since President Franklin Roosevelt signed the program into law in 1935. As part of the New Deal, The Social Security Act (SSA) was put into action at the height of the Great Depression to attempt to create a lifeline for the elderly and disabled. Many Americans used, and still use, the SSA to be able to live comfortably. However it did not come without its fair share of criticism from President Roosevelt’s rival politicians, social commenters, and religious leaders like Father Charles Coughlin calling the SSA “communist” and being a part of an overreaching government. This project examines the support as well as the backlash behind the SSA and why it has had such longevity.
At the height of the Great Depression, FDR and his allies sought to both fix the problems which had brought the country into the depression and set up the nation for future success. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was part of a group of programs called the New Deal, designed to address the depression. The TVA sought to provide economic advancement to the Tennessee River Valley through hydro-electrification and the development of infrastructure. FDR also envisioned this program as a “yardstick”—a standard against which other utilities could be compared. This project explores the development of the TVA, whether it accomplished its goals, and the implications for today.
The purpose of this study is to show how the new Negro came into existence and its impact on society at large.
The research will look into the evolution of divine and man made law through human history.
Type I Diabetes affects many individuals in the United States. This chronic condition requires individuals to take insulin, but the cost of insulin has skyrocketed over the years, making it difficult for many individuals to afford a life-saving medication.
Artificial Intelligence has become a rapidly growing field with far-reaching implications for various industries, including healthcare, law, policy, and education. Artificial Intelligence with its enormous power and potential cannot be stopped anymore; it is up to us to control the outcome of the inevitable rise of mechanical learning. This essay will explore the connection of AI and these industries, with a focus on the challenges and opportunities that AI presents. By researching various peer-reviewed articles, this essay will look into how what influence does AI have in these industries, the impact of AI on the job market, the need for regulation of AI, the potential benefits and drawbacks of AI in education, including how it can be used to create a more efficient and effective learning environment in higher education. Through this analysis, the essay aims to provide a good and comprehensive understanding of the current AI state and its potential (bad or good) impact on healthcare, law, policy, and education, and identify key areas for further research and discussion. The increasing integration of AI in these industries has the potential to transform our world, and it is crucial that we explore the possibilities and limitations of this technology in order to maximize its benefits and minimize its risks.
Throughout the dance industry over the past several years there have been numerous acts of racial injustice. Within dancewear, dance genres, and especially the ballet and modern world of dance, the dance industry has fallen extremely short when it comes to the diversity and inclusion of non-white dancers. Further discussing and bringing up these topics of racial injustice in the dance industry allows for the development of more inclusive and diverse dancewear and a more inclusive and diverse dance culture. Without the negative impacts racial injustice in the dance industry has given dancers over several years, dancers of all colors will be able to flourish in their craft by being included all the same way. A world where all dancers can dance freely with dance attire that matches their skin tone, and where all dancers are given equal opportunities regardless of their race is what will be explored within my research, discussing a world where there is no racial injustice and more diversity and inclusion within the dance world.
The Pink Tax is a phenomenon in which products marketed toward women are priced higher than identical or similar products marketed toward men. This research project aims to investigate the existence of the Pink Tax, its impact on consumers, and the marketing strategies employed by companies to justify such pricing. By exploring consumer behavior and attitudes towards the Pink Tax, as well as analyzing marketing tactics used by companies, this research aims to shed light on the injustice of this marketing scheme and its broader implications for gender equality in society.
The United States has a progressive income tax system that taxes higher-income individuals more heavily than lower-income individuals. So does Switzerland, but their highest income tax rate is 11.5% compared to the United States’s 37%. As it appears this is not the only difference between these two taxation systems, should the United States adopt Switzerland’s taxation model to stimulate entrepreneurial innovation and growth? How does Switzerland manages their taxes and couldf it work in the United States? What consequences could it create? It is an interesting alternative for the current taxes in the United States. The Tax Wedge of a single worker with no children earning a nation’s average wage is 29.6% in the United States, while in Switzerland it is only 22.2%. The highest property tax in the U.S. is 2.49% in New Jersey, 0.3% in Switzerland. However, the U.S. has no VAT (value added tax), which is generally popular in Europe with Switzerland rate set at 7.7%. There are some exemptions including medical, educational, and cultural services. Taxes in Switzerland are mostly lower than in the United States. Is it possible for such a taxation policy to work in the United States with a population over 36 times bigger than Switzerland’s? There are definitely some adjustments that could be made.
In 2010, a board of people decided that the U.S. school system should have a set lesson plan assigned to a specific grade so that every student can be on the same level when it comes to going to college and taking a standardized test. This board was people that were not educators. The lesson plans were constricting and needed to be more flexible for teachers to review material or take the material at a different pace. It was a hard time for students, especially if they had a learning disability. Most states have abandoned these lesson plans because they are so challenging to fit with every kind of student. This has caused another gap in learning for our generation. Some schools focus more on mathematics and science while others focus more on English, phonics, and spelling. There was an additional gap created with everyone shutting down their institutions because of Covid-19. Most students do not learn anything when a class is online because there is no connection between the teacher and the students.
The “Don’t Say Gay” bill, HB 1557, set off a dangerous chain of events in America, sparking a variety of similar bills banning any talk of sexual orientation and gender identity in the classroom. Because of this bill, a rise in new anti-LGBTQ+ legislation has been encouraged in our federal governments. Students and teachers are not only being discouraged for expressing themselves, but they are even punished because of their identity. To get a better understanding of the implications these bills have, one should analyze the text of these proposed bills, look into the impact they have on teachers, and finally examine the harm they do to students during this critical period of development.
The mistreatment of children at the hands of adults is a worldwide issue. This issue is even more severe among certain groups of children. Disabled children in particular tend to face a disproportionate amount of abuse and neglect. Sexual, verbal, emotional, and physical abuse are all enacted upon disabled children much more frequently than non-disabled children. Teachers, caregivers, parents, and older siblings all can be the sources of said mistreatment. Awareness of disabilities and giving support to caretakers of disabled children have both shown to decrease the likelihood of future abuse. This shows that it is possible to reduce the amount of mistreatment disabled children endure by educating, training, and supporting those who care for these children.
The boundaries of accountant-client privilege do not contain the same legal protections concerning privacy as attorney client-privilege. Attorney-client privilege is a foundational right of the American juris prudence system; it is understood to be a right. This legal privilege does not exist in accountant-client privilege or in a fiduciary responsibility. The accountant-privilege is commonly associated with tax law and tax filing. Therefore, can an accountant claim a privilege when reporting their own taxes is the topic at hand. Cornell Law School and the Legal Information Institute under Section 26 U.S. Code # 7525 illustrates confidentiality privacies that can be protected through taxpayer and tax advisor communications. I used information from The International Federation of Accountants that provides a code of ethics highlighting daily conduct codes as well as unlawful actions and conversations with not only clients but their own financial reporting to the IRS. My findings found that while attorney-client privilege can provide confidentiality for any and all conversations held between clients and their private attorney, the accountant-client privilege only creates confidentiality of lawful financial advice and reporting under United States regulations. The ethical and responsibility values upheld in accounting professions must abide with federal law and ultimately close lapses that could be found in attorney-client privilege.
Agriculture has been the most vital part of societies since the very first agricultural communities settled in the Mesopotamian basin. With such an important task at hand, it is illogical that the symbolic American ranchers and cowboys are struggling to put food on their own tables. The economic justice of ranchers and meat consumers in America is being threatened by the ever-increasing consolidation of meatpacking plants and the decrease in cash trades of cattle, disrupting the natural flow of a fair market. The meat monopoly has been a topic of American government policy since the introduction of The Packers and Stockyards Act in 1921. As the meat industry continues to make headlines while being investigated by the Biden administration, this paper covers the history of the cattle industry and the history of meatpacking antitrust policy in America through the lens of economic justice.
For years, data has shown that racial minorities are disproportionately overrepresented in the United States’s prison system. There are several factors that contribute to this, but some of the most influential of those factors include the racial discrimination by law enforcement, policies that specifically target minority populations, and how society teaches us to ignore racial tensions and potential bias. African Americans are arrested more often during traffic stops when compared with other races. Minimum punishments for crack cocaine are harsher than powder cocaine, despite the fact that they are the same substance, because crack cocaine is associated more strongly with Black and Lantinx population where powder is “for white people.” Colorblind racism, ignoring race as a whole, and claiming not to see its effects, is at an all time high as people use it as a defensive attempt not to seem racist when in reality it is just racism in another form. This paper expands on what causes disproportionate incarceration rates for racial minorities.
The discrepancy between white collar crime and violent crime accountability has many causes and effects. White collar crimes are prosecuted differently than blue collar crimes. This discrepancy leads to unequal treatment and skews notions of equal justice under the law. This issue can be addressed through accounting processes that include furthering ethics and responsibilities within the education and career of accounting professionals. Crime has been a consistent issue within the United States for a very long time, an issue that has been addressed through various policies and outlooks on crime. These various policies and outlooks have been more heavily focused on addressing violent crimes rather than white collar crimes. Violent crime and white collar crime differ in types of offenders, victims, crimes, and much more, however, both have victims and cause mass negative effects each year. White collar criminals are treated with far more leniency in the criminal justice system and in American society as a whole, this can be seen through the lack of prosecution, prison time, and offender stigma. This leniency offers little deterrence for current/future white collar criminals and almost no closure for the victims and their families. It is much easier for a white collar criminal to go undetected than a violent offender. In order to resolve the discrepancy between white collar crime and violent crime accountability, accounting professionals need to have strong ethics and work with the criminal justice system to bring undetected offenders to light.
Due to the recent changes in reproductive legislation towards a more Christian viewpoint, minors are finding more trouble accessing reproductive healthcare. It is imperative that we analyze the reproductive justice of minors in order to best help this vulnerable population. According to UNFPA.org, globally, the risk of dying of pregnancy-related causes is highest among people with uteruses ages 13 to 19 because pregnant adolescents are more likely to give birth to premature babies or babies of low birthweight. Currently, there are no federal laws prohibiting minors from obtaining birth control without their parent or guardian’s consent; however, there are also no laws protecting this right. Through discussing religious persecution, the definition of maturity, and the devastating effects these laws can have, we will discover how America is only as strong as its most vulnerable population.
Natural biases are formed when children are young and in school. There has to be a way to quiet these natural biases and help our children to not learn these biases in the education system. This paper is about overcoming bias in education. First, it will be explained how everyone is biased, whether they realize it or not. With that, it will explain how these natural biases are formed. Then, definitions of bias will be addressed. There are many different types of biases, all will be defined and elaborated on how they fit into the world of education. Next, it will explain how biases can lead to discrimination. Finally, this paper will explain some steps toward trying to unlearn natural biases that people have.
Nurses have many duties and cope with a diverse body of patients. One of the main goals for a nurse is to provide quality care to patients who are unable to care for oneself. Nurses have been fulfilling this goal for centuries, risking their lives through wars, plagues, epidemics, depressions, and pandemics. The Covid 19 pandemic impacted the nursing profession especially hard, causing extreme fatigue or “burnout,” which has been prevalent in nursing for years, but since COVID-19, the issue has been brought to the forefront of the media. The pandemic has posed a catalyst for this global burnout among nurses, causing many nurses to take a stance, as we have seen nurses across our country walk out and go on strikes. What have been the factors leading up to this? The author pulled data from 20 sources, including case studies, interviews, and personal accounts to get a better understanding. The goal of this paper is to provide answers, and to find the reason(s) to this influx in burnout rates. Hopefully giving readers a stronger foundation of respect for the healthcare workers who risk their lives and loved one’s in order to provide that quality care we take for granted.
The highly infectious disease of COVID-19 has negatively impacted citizens across the United States. The impact of COVID on minorities has been catastrophic. The purpose of this paper is to convey the disproportionate suffering the COVID-19 pandemic has had on African Americans in the United States. Black Americans are more susceptible to contracting the virus due to racial and ethnic disparities embedded in our society. Racial disparities cause this burden leading to a disproportionate death rate for African Americans compared to other segments of the population. The advancement of our society needs to determine the factors that contribute to people of color being at an increased risk for not only contracting COVID-19 but experiencing the threatening symptoms of the virus that ultimately lead to prolonged hospitalization or death. Through the research of numerous credible articles and books, it was found that an excessive number of COVID-19 cases among African Americans are primarily due to social disparities. The COVID-19 pandemic exposed deficiencies in the American healthcare system and showed that African Americans suffered disproportionately deleterious effects from the pandemic due to an individual’s socioeconomic status, pre-existing health conditions, and racism. From these findings, it is concluded that the virus is more susceptible to people of color due to social issues in our country.
It’s no secret that college has gotten increasingly expensive. Big state schools and smaller private institutions have both experienced historical growth which has greatly exceeded the rate of inflation. Yet, college enrollment across the country is as high as ever. As such, students have increasingly had to rely on debt to fund their higher education. Recent efforts have been taken at multiple levels of government to limit the effects of student loan debt, both at present and in the future. While these efforts are good steps, they do not address the roots of the issue. This paper will seek to uncover why college has gotten so expensive and offer some possible solutions, looking to root causes as much as possible along the way.
Over the past couple of years, many teachers have received heat for falsely identifying children. Gender affirmation has been largely discussed in the media and in schools, causing a political debate to emerge. People may identify however they wish, but the discussion should not be one that comes into the classroom. Religion is not to be discussed in schools, so why should gender be discussed? Research shows that discussing gender in the classroom creates animosity between parents and teachers. One falsely identified child and suddenly the entire population is hating on said teacher because of a wrongly stated pronoun. This study is not a debate on whether or not the LQBTQ+ community is right or wrong, but rather a debate on if this is something that should be taught in schools. Schools should be a safe haven for all students, regardless of their race, religion, or gender. By bringing the gender discussion into schools, there are a string of complications added to the mix. This study will use a variety of sources from both sides of the spectrum, to debate whether or not the gender crisis should be addressed in the classroom, and to what extent that should reach.
Minorities, including Black, Hispanic, and Indigenous students, continue to be underrepresented in post-secondary educational institutions. This disparity is perpetuated by systemic inequalities such as limited access to quality primary and secondary education, financial barriers, and discriminatory admissions practices. The shortage of minorities in post-secondary education has serious implications for social mobility and economic development, as these students are often unable to access high-paying jobs that require advanced degrees. Despite efforts to increase diversity in higher education, progress has been slow. While some institutions have implemented affirmative action policies and outreach programs to encourage minority enrollment, these efforts have been met with resistance and legal challenges. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated existing inequalities, as many minority students lack access to the technology and resources needed for online learning. To address this shortage, a comprehensive approach is needed. It is also important to address the root causes of systemic inequalities, such as discrimination and racism, and work towards creating a more equitable society.
Across the United States, there are large power plants that are affecting the surrounding communities and neighborhoods. These power plants have many different effects on the environment because of their emissions. Multiple different pollutants are emitted into the atmosphere including sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide. These emissions contribute to global warming and also affect people as well. Some of the health effects include developing or worsening asthma, bronchitis, heart disease, lung disease, and unfortunately sometimes premature death. However, most of the people affected by these health effects are low-income families, minorities, and even indigenous people. This is because they live in the areas surrounding the power plants because they may not be able to afford to live in a better area where they will not be affected as much. This contributes to environmental justice because not everyone is treated fairly in regards to where the power plants are located so they don’t affect people around them. Environmental justice refers to the fair treatment of everyone no matter their race, nationality, or their income when developing, implementing, and enforcing any laws or regulations regarding the environment.
I am studying the topic of injustice within media literacy because it is a necessary skill to be able to articulate and examine the text with the appropriate skills of knowing if the source is credible or not. This study is important to digital marketing because it demonstrates the importance of being able to responsibly broadcast information for a company within the right manners of justified work. This research is being investigated for the purpose of improving the problem of misinformation, bias, and growing mental health concerns. My research methods include information presented from JSTOR, organizational domains, and graphs representing the different components that educators are implementing in schools to help build the young generations’ questions and articulate them for themselves. Mandates are becoming effective to implement media literacy classes, such as in New Jersey, and being introduced to many others states that want to follow. This yields in people gaining a beneficially shaped mind to trust their knowledge over the biased, bogus, or rightfully wrong media. The expected outcome of my research is to help the reader question what they are consuming and make them question how they are going to act or implement what they consume. This will overall drive the reader to get uncomfortable within their media viewing outlets and social overview. Media Spidle 2 literacy is important because readers critically analyze content, effectively create content, and actively use their knowledge for the reader’s benefit.
The field of Psychology has a commitment to human rights, as mental health is a matter of decreasing human suffering and the promotion of a common good. A system of injustice is harmful in regards to these goals, however, exists within African countries. This research paper examines existing injustices, inequities, inequalities, and disproportions in the mental health sector in African countries in comparison to Western nations such as the United States by the use of outside literature. Injustices related to social justice are highlighted and tied back to the main principles of equity, access, participation, and harmony. The research shows that the poorest countries have the least resources and proportionally spend less than any other country in this sector, even though they are in the most need of mental health services. Data analysis displays a massive lack of human resources and the inequitable, as well as unequal geopolitical distribution of such. Furthermore, injustices have been found regarding the access to and the higher cost of medication in African countries, as well as unequal access to social health insurance. Stigma and discrimination together with cultural beliefs are fuelling the issue by systematically excluding individuals from accessing mental health resources and ignoring the existence of mental health disorders. Due to low spending and missing legislations on this issue in African countries, trained staff is missing, which prevents the implication of a system that could decrease human suffering and opens up the treatment gap and injustices between African countries and Western nations.
As the prison population continues to rise in America, so does the number of children with parents behind bars. Children are brought into the world by their parents. Most children are strongly influenced by their parents, as their parents are their guides for life. Parents pass down beliefs, understanding and culture to their children. Children with parents in the prison system are not given the same opportunities as children whose parents are actively involved in their lives. Having a parent who is actively incarcerated can put a strain or even destroy the relationship between the parent and child. Children whose parents are incarcerated are at a higher risk for child delinquency, social and emotional problems, as well as poor academic performance. The question remaining for society is, should incarceration procedures include protocols responding to the reality of children whose parents are incarcerated?
All across the United States, there are large power plants that are affecting the surrounding communities and neighborhoods. These power plants have many different effects on the environment because of their emissions. Multiple different pollutants are emitted into the atmosphere including sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide. These emissions contribute to global warming and also affect people as well. Some of the health effects include developing or worsening asthma, bronchitis, heart disease, lung disease, and unfortunately sometimes premature death. However, most of the people affected by these health effects are low-income families, minorities, and even indigenous people. This is because they live in the areas surrounding the power plants because they may not be able to afford to live in a better area where they will not be affected as much. This contributes to environmental justice because not everyone is treated fairly in regards to where the power plants are located so they don’t affect people around them. Environmental justice refers to the fair treatment of everyone no matter their race, nationality, or their income when developing, implementing, and enforcing any laws or regulations regarding the environment.
Currently, prescription drug prices in the U.S. are at an all-time high, and many Americans suffer because of this. Something needs to be done to make prescription drugs affordable for the people who need them. The U.S. has the highest prescription drug prices out of any nation. Data shows that prescription drug prices have increased significantly in the last decade. In this paper, I will explain how these increased drug prices are not due to increased effectiveness, and how the new prices are increasing the number of American citizens who can’t afford needed medications. I will also explain the results of studies that have shown how much the expensive price of a prescription drug can hurt patients. By allowing the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to regulate prescription drug prices, many more Americans will be able to afford the medicine they have needed.
The banning of books has been a hot-button topic in the news in the past few years. More and more, books that were once deemed classics are facing mass bannings. This leads us to the question of why are these books facing mass bannings. Just how large is the increase in the number of banned books this year as compared to previous years? More than 1,600 books were banned in schools during the 2021-2022 school year. During the 2011-2012 school year, less than 500 books were banned or challenged. This demonstrates a rise in the number of banned books in the past decade. This boom in banning books can be attributed to the rise in political tensions that bleed into our education system. I aim to examine the trends in what books have recently been banned, and what groups are being silenced by this mass banning. By categorizing banned books into groups based on their subject matter, I will begin to uncover a pattern of what groups are being most targeted by this mass banning and attempt to create a line of reasoning as to why these books are being banned. I will also explore the differences between challenged and banned books, as well as explain the process of getting a book banned.
My research and project compares and contrasts opioid use vs alternative medicine use when it comes to treating moderate pain. My hypothesis is that although opioid use is the correct way to treat moderate pain in certain sceneries, I do however believe that alternative medicines have less harmful adverse effects and can possibly be used better for treating moderate pain than opioids. The alternative medicines I discuss are chiropractic, acupuncture, and essential oils.
HUMAN PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
The saying “Speed kills” has been used for years by coaches and players of anaerobic sports. Speed is an undisputedly important factor for many anaerobic sports and the development of it has been sought after for years by strength and conditioning coaches around the world. In this presentation, my goal is to not only define speed and it’s many qualities, but also demonstrate the best way to develop those qualities. The two most common methods of developing speed are unresisted and resisted running. The question over which is better or if they both are equally important will be discussed in this presentation.
Through a mixture of literature review and a qualitative survey conducted with Midland student-athletes, this study determined if college athletes should use caffeine before participating in academic and/or athletic activities. The positive and negative effects were evaluated, as many who consume caffeine do not consider the immediate or lasting side effects. As a result of this study, “best practices” related to caffeine consumption were developed to assist college athletes and students in optimally improving their academic and athletic performances.
For my internship, I was an assistant house parent at the Masonic Eastern Star Home for Children. The Masonic home is a home away from home for children that have been separated from their homes for multiple reasons. While living at the home the children live with others around their age, along with a house parent. Masonic has multiple different activities that the children can do on a daily basis such as welding, woodwork, 4-H, and many more.
This project reviews my internships at Anchor Pointe Elementary and the Department of Health and Human Services.
Obesity rates are continually increasing in reproductive-age women, and a frequent topic of discussion among women’s health is improving reproductive outcomes. The research gathered in this project will provide answers as to how weight affects reproductive outcomes and will give nurses evidence-based education for women who are in their reproductive years. This question follows the PICO(T) structure as there is a specific population with a specific action/intervention being considered. There is a controlled factor and an expected outcome that has a specific time frame. Hypothesis: maintaining a healthy weight will improve reproductive outcomes for women in their peak reproductive years. Based on observational research, future research will focus on implementations such as specific diets and exercise for women in their reproductive years.
Obesity is a major problem in the U.S., with percentages of obese adults increasing annually, per the CDC. Women with poor gestational diets may contribute to the development of obesity in their children. Can a dietary intervention during gestation help avoid or reduce childhood obesity rates and related health issues?
Many women in their childbearing years use hormonal contraceptives. Research gathered from studies on this topic would help nurses provide evidence-based education about the use of contraceptives and their effects.
The topic of co-sleeping and its effect on SIDS is an important education point for nurses. As nurses, educating is one of our key roles, and it’s important to have research that supports what we are telling our families. Prioritizing this education point may be the difference in a child’s life or death. Our population is any family with newborn babies less than six months old, since the highest prevalence of SIDS is within the first six months of life. Our intervention is to educate and encourage to avoid co-sleeping, and our control group would be those that do choose to co-sleep. We hypothesize that avoiding co-sleeping will decrease the incidences of SIDS in the first six months of life (outcomes and time).
The purpose of the study was to conclude what attachment styles of the participants were most likely to result from the main parenting style(s) they were subjected to throughout their childhood. This is an important topic of discussion to see which parenting style is the healthiest to use and inflict consistently on children to create the healthiest attachment style. The more negative parenting styles of authoritarian and uninvolved/neglectful are more likely to cause attachment styles in young adults that can be problematic like anxious, avoidant, and fearful avoidant. While the positively noted parenting styles were more likely to cause the positive and healthy attachment style of secure.
The purpose of this research is to understand what factors may play a role in classroom participation among college students. This study may help other professors understand why college students may not be participating in their classroom lectures.
The purpose of this study is to determine if a college student’s workload, defined as their obligations inside and outside of the classroom, plays a direct role in the status of their mental health. Mental health issues are a growing topic of concern within college students and student athletes, and this study looks at how much these factors affect anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts or ideation
The goal of this study is to show the differences of stigma surrounding mental health in college aged individuals today in comparison to that of older generations such as parents, professors, coaches, and other collegiate staff. This is to see generational differences and the decrease of stigma in society today based off of individuals from a diverse student/staff population on a college campus. This is important for the betterment of people’s longevity and overall population’s satisfaction. What was found was a decrease in stigma surrounding individuals’ views on mental health. However it is still present today.
This research explains relationships between how individuals opinions will be impacted by the generation they grew up in and how the ethical issues that arise will impact society. The research will also demonstrate a relationship between the ethical issues that arise from the scientific advancements and the the impact that the scientific advancements have on society. The advancements and capabilities that are included in this study are genetic editing in humans, reviving extinct species, and in vitro fertilization.
This project works to better understand different family structures that are typically seen such as nuclear families, step-families, and single-parent families. Fifty Midland University students were surveyed and were asked about the type of family they were raised in along with their memories of their childhood.
This study sought to look at the living situation of undergraduate students to assess if there is a grade impact from where a student may live while at college. It looked at variables ranging from how many people they shared their shower with, number of roommates, dorm style, and views on how they perceived the impact of their environment on their GPA. Ultimately, it appears that people may have a higher grade if they like their living situation, however, there are minute differences that are worth considering for future research.
This study aims to explore the relationship between challenging behavior observed in the classroom and and the general atmosphere of the class room. The reasoning for exploring this connection is to identify the strategies teachers are using to maintain their preferred atmosphere to better understand the needs for teachers and students within the general education classroom. This study was done by interviewing teachers in a Midwest school system.
The purpose of this study was to see how video games impacted the mental health of young adults in ages of 19-29. This looked at how a person rated their mental health on a typical day before, during, and after a session of video games to compare the results.
The purpose of this research is to see if there is an effect that alcohol has on grade point averages when consumed by student athletes. This includes seeing which athletic team may be at the highest risk for participating in excessive drinking and how it has impacted their schooling. Alcohol consumption and the dangers related to this behavior have become a growing concern for all college student athletes nationwide.
The purpose of this research was to develop an understanding of sleep qualities in collegiate student athletes. The study included looking into other associating factors of why collegiate student athletes are potentially developing poor sleep qualities. Factors may vary from daytime naps, caffeine and water intake along with food, and if medication is used in order to fall asleep. Poor sleep quality can have extensive effects especially for athletes, and can impact how the individuals physically perform within their sport and their cognitive functioning within the classroom.
This study aims to dive into the prevalence of nicotine usage in collegiate level athletes as well as the side effects of its usage. It looks at both the positive and negative aspects of nicotine usage, such as increased concentration and health related problems, that are associated with the use of nicotine products.
This study aims to see if athletic burnout is a problem at Midland University. This includes seeing which athletic team experiences the most burnout and if the university is appropriately addressing the stress factors of athletes. In the study, stress from school was the most common form of stress experienced by athletes. With growing attention to athletes and mental health, the study leaves room for further research on how Midland can provide resources for athletes to reduce their stress levels and, subsequently, athletic burnout.
The purpose of this research study was to see if there is an association between how much time college students spend with an animal and their overall well-being. College can be a stressful time for students, and establishing ways to manage your overall well-being is crucial. Other various studies similar to this have been done, but many of those focus on only one aspect of a person’s well-being. This study takes into consideration all aspects of one’s wellbeing, mental, social, physical, and emotional.
Certain stressors, such as the level of involvement and the ability to balance various roles and responsibilities, impact necessary duties as a college student. This study aimed to identify how institutional involvement opportunities impact an individual’s perceived social value. Overall, the data indicated a strong relationship between campus involvement and positive connections among faculty, staff, and other students. Furthermore, campus involvement motivated individuals to strive in both the classroom and on the field. Finally, connections to others from various groups helped students feel a connection and understanding of society beyond themselves.
This project explores the relationship between the level of someone’s social attainment and their overall life satisfaction. This relationship is studied using anonymous survey data collected from Midland Students.
Code-switching is the linguistic practice of alternating between two or more languages in a conversation. This study looks into all the components of code-switching, including the basics of multi-language development and acquisition, code-switching and its different forms, and attitudes and perceptions regarding code-switching. Additionally, this research aids in identifying and analyzing the factors behind this language phenomenon, such as socialization, language proficiency, and conscious and subconscious behavior.